Health & Safety at Work Act – 40 years on

Download PDF

2014 will mark 40 years since Health and Safety at Work Act received Royal Assent.


Although, often misunderstood and misinterpreted, the Act has protected millions of British workers and been a key contributor to high reductions in incidents of occupational death, serious injury and ill health. Judith Haskell, Chair of HSE said on her blog:

“Arguably it is one of the best pieces of legislation on the statute books, in 1974, fatalities to employees covered by the legislation in place then stood at 651. The latest figure for 2012/13 was down to 148 for employees and self-employed combined. The actual reduction is probably more than this as data for sectors not covered by health and safety law pre 1974 was not collected. In the same time frame (and with the same caveat) non-fatal injuries have dropped by more than 75 percent. There is still room for improvement clearly, but the change in the last 40 years is quite remarkable.”

Previous to the 1974 Act, there was a myriad of separate regulations – some industries were drowning with prescriptive rules and others with sparse or no regulation at all. The 1972 Robens Report concluded there were too many regulations and that what was needed was a regulatory regime that set broad, non-prescriptive goals for Dutyholders, underpinned by a fundamental principle: ‘those that create risk are best placed to manage it’.

The Act that emerged from his review removed the detailed and prescriptive industry regulations and created a flexible system where regulations describe goals and principles, supported by codes of practice and guidance. Based on consultation and engagement, the new regime was designed to deliver a proportionate, targeted and risk-based approach.

“40 years on and this approach still applies. Despite having diversified away from an economy-based predominantly on heavy industry and manufacturing, much of the original vision and framework of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 remains relevant. The principles have been applied time and again to new and emerging technologies and sectors. The legacy is a safety record envied around the world.

Much of our current reform agenda is aimed at: stripping out unnecessary or duplicated regulation and helping smaller businesses to understand how to take a proportionate approach to managing their risks – but the basic principles remain the same.”

Forty years on, the Health and Safety at Work Act has demonstrated it can be applied to new responsibilities and new demands, creating the framework for people to come home safe and well from a day’s work in any sector of the economy.